You might have probably heard the phrase, “It’s not what you know, it’s whom you know.” Unfortunately, this may be the case when it comes to finding a job, especially in this tough economy and the even harsher job market. It seems that these days, you really need to know someone, or at least have some sort of connection to an executive or hiring manager in an organization, in order for you to get your foot into the door.
With so much competition out there when it comes to finding employment, it is time to put the people in your life to work for you in helping you land the job of your dreams. If you have been going it alone this entire time, consider enlisting the help of some people you know. After all, you never know who they may be connected to, and you never know what great things can happen until you try.
Start with Friends and Family
Let your friends and family know that you are out of work and that you are seeking a new position. You may need to put your pride aside, but with so many people out of work these days, there is really nothing to be ashamed of if you are unemployed. Just putting the word out and asking people to keep their eyes and ears open for potential opportunities within the field, or fields, you are interested in may result in someone having just the right information for you at the most opportune moment. But if you keep your job hunt a secret, the task of finding a new position will be on your shoulders only, and because job hunting is pretty exhausting, you may get burned out and miss a chance you would have loved to have taken.
Ask for Positive Referrals from Previous Employers and Co-Workers
Take advantage of the people with whom you used to work by asking them to provide you with positive letters of recommendation, or ask them if they would be willing to take phone calls from prospective employers who are looking for references from your old jobs once you submit applications. As long as you are confident that they will have nothing but good things to say about you, take advantage of whatever positive feedback you can get that will prove to potential employers that you are worth hiring.
Talk to People who are Already Employed
If you know friends and family members who are working in large or small businesses that may potentially need extra help at any point in time, let them know that you are interested in working there. When a job opens up, they can put in a good word for you and you can submit an application knowing that you have someone on the inside that is making sure to speak up on your behalf. It may be enough to get you an interview, and then you can take it from there and prove how much you are worth.
Aaron Griffin is a renowned author of all things career related. When checking out the latest training courses available for working in an office environment
The Right Attire
We just wrapped up talking about presenting yourself with your speaking and presentation skills. An important of any presentation is your attire. Everybody knows that you are supposed to look your best when you attend a job interview. Unfortunately, the definition of ‘look your best’ is a little vague. Ideally, we would suggest that you don’t do your own shopping. All of us have at least one friend in our group who is something of a fashion guru. Use such individuals’ skills and expertise to buy clothes that will make you look. Remember to buy a backup dress in case something happens to the main set of clothes.
What you have just read is only a part of what goes into keeping your career plan kicking. To make it better and smarter, you need to work with a good recruitment company. Recruitment managers can help you with your resume, help you with practising interviews, give you tips about the right clothes to wear and much more than that. All of this will take only a few hours of your time and you will be set for any future job opportunities that might present themselves to you.
The author learnt much of the above-mentioned job-hunting skills through sheer experience. He used them to land a collection of leisure jobs.
The 2020 Summer Olympics is suspended Because Of Corona Virus. It is officially referred to as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad and commonly referred to as Tokyo 2020, Below are the highest 20 richest Olympians within the world.
1. Caitlyn Jenner
Net Worth: $100 Million
Caitlyn Jenner is one of the Richest Olympian in the world
American television personality and former Olympic gold medal-winning athlete, Caitlyn Jenner is taken into account together of the highest athlete within the world. She won the 1976 Olympics decathlon event in Montreal alongside that, Jenner won the men’s decathlon event at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal
2. Ivana Trump
Net Worth: $60 Million
Ivana Trump may be a Czech former businesswoman and model; she was first married to the present president of America Donald Trump. But in 1992, they were divorced. Ivana was selected as an alternate on the Czechoslovak ski team during the 1972 Winter Olympic Games. Her modeling jobs included promoting the 1976 Summer Olympics that were held in Montreal. She is one of the Richest Olympian in the world
3. Usain Bolt
Net Worth: $60 Million
Usain Bolt may be a former Jamaican sprinter. A nine-time Olympic gold medalist, bolt won the 100 meters, 200 meters, and 4 x 100 meters’ relay at three consecutive Olympics. he’s widely known to be the simplest and fastest sprinter of all time.Usain Bolt is one of the Richest Olympian in the world
4. Michael Phelps
Net Worth: $55 Million
Michael Phelps is an American former swimmer. he’s one among the foremost successful Olympian in history. he acquired eight gold medals at the 2008 Beijing Games. Phelps broke American swimmer Mark Spitz’s 1972 record of seven first-place finishes at any single Olympic Games. Michael Phelps is one of the Richest Olympian in the world
5. Lance Armstrong
Net Worth: $50 Million
Lance Edward Armstrong is a professional road racing cyclist of America. At the age of 16, Armstrong started competing as a triathlete and was a national sprint-course triathlon champion in 1989 and 1990. he’s considered to be one among the simplest cyclists of all time. Lance Armstrong is one of the Richest Olympian in the world
Shane Warne is an Australian former cricketer, who also played for Australia as a caption. Shane Warne announced his retirement from international Cricket in July 2013. Warne played his first match game in 1992 and took over 1000 international wickets. he’s referred to as a legendary cricket player, now he’s serving as a teacher in several clubs. Shane Warne is one of the Richest Olympian in the world
7. Greg LeMond
Net Worth: $40 Million
Gregory LeMond is an American former professional road racing cyclist who won the Road Race World Championship twice in 1983 and in 1989. He won the Tour de France 3 times (1986, 1989 and 1990) and is taken into account together of the best American cyclists of all time. Greg LeMond is one of the Richest Olympian in the world
8. Shaun White
Net Worth: $40 Million
Shaun White is an American professional snowboarder, musician, and skateboarder. White may be a three-time Olympic gold medalist. He also holds the record for the foremost X-Games gold medals and most Olympic gold medals by a snowboarder.
9. Alan Pascoe
Net Worth: $30 Million
Alan Peter Pascoe may be a British former athlete who gained success in hurdles. He has been successful in events marketing and consulting After his athletics career, Pascoe won medals within the Olympic Games, the ECU Championships, the Commonwealth Games and therefore the European Indoor Games
10. Scott Hamilton
Net Worth: $30 Million
Scott Hamilton may be a former American figure skater and Olympic gold medalist. Hamilton has won four U.S championships, four World Championships and a trophy within the 1984 Olympics. Scott started his professional career in 1976. Scott Hamilton is one of the Richest Olympian in the world
11. Carl Lewis
Net Worth: $20 Million
Carl Lewis is an American former track and field Olympian who has won nine Olympic gold medals and one Olympic silver. Lewis is one among only three athletes who have won a trophy within the same individual event in four consecutive Olympic Games.
12. Chantal Sutherland
Net Worth: $20 Million
Chantal Sutherland may be a Canadian model, television personality, and jockey in North American. On October 9, 2000, Sutherland won her first career race in Toronto. She participated in the Colombian Emeralds International Jockey Challenge on New Year’s Day 2005 in Barbados.
13. Eddy Merckx
Net Worth: $20 Million
Eddy Merckx maybe a Belgian former professional road and tracks bicycle racer who is that the most successful rider in history. Merckx won eleven Grand Tours, five Monuments, and three World Championships. Merckx got his first bicycle at the age of only 3 and won in his first race in 1961.
14. Jan Ullrich
Net Worth: $20 Million
Jan Ullrich may be a German former professional road bicycle racer. He won gold and silver medals within the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. He announced his retirement in 2007. he’s referred to as the legend of bicycling.
15. Jennifer Katharine Gates
Net Worth: $20 Million
Jennifer Katharine Gates is that the eldest child of the billionaire, Gates. She has participated in several horse-riding tournaments professionally. She played the equestrian festival in Palm Beach, Florida, and Longines Masters show.
16. Mark Spitz
Net Worth: $20 Million
Mark Spitz is an American former swimmer and a nine-time Olympic champion. Spitz set a replacement record altogether seven events during which he competed in 1972. He was called World Swimmer of the Year in 1969, 1971, and 1972 by Swimming World Magazine.
17. Oksana Baiul
Net Worth: $20 Million
Oksana Baiul may be a Ukrainian former figure skater. She won the 1993 World champion and therefore the 1994 Olympic champion. Baiul is that the first and only skater representing Ukraine to win gold at the Winter Olympic Games. She is additionally the primary Olympic champion of independent Ukraine in any sport. Oksana Baiul is one of the Richest Olympian in the world
18. Ray Bourque
Net Worth: $20 Million
Ray Bourque may be a Canadian former professional ice-hockey player. Bourque holds many records for many goals, assists, and points as a defenceman within the NHL. He won the James Norris Memorial Trophy because the NHL’s best defensemen five times. His career started in 1979 till 2001.
Net Worth: $20 Million
Zara Tindall may be a member of British royalty, horse rider, and Olympian. In 2012, at Cheltenham Racecourse she carried an Olympic flame on her horse Toytown. Tindall won the Eventing World Championship in Aachen in 2006. an equivalent year she was voted 2006 BBC Sports Personality of the Year by British television. Zara Tindall is one of the Richest Olympian in the world
20. Brian Boitano
Net Worth: $18 Million
Brian Anthony Boitano is an American figure skater. He won the 1988 Olympic champion, the 1986 and 1988 World Champion, and therefore the 1985–1988 U.S. National Champion. He turned professional following the 1988 season. Brian started his career
Oxford University is one of the simplest universities within the world, however, it’s also one of the oldest universities within the world, it’s a singular and historical institution. it’s unknown when the university was built however by watching the architecture of the building it’s known to be dated. within the university, teaching be present in some method in 1096 and advanced quickly from 1167 since Henry II forbidden English students from attending the University of Paris. The university is ranked together of the highest ten universities within the world and is ranked first globally by the day’s education World University Rankings as of 2019. Oxford is one of the simplest universities it’s educated numerous significant alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the UK and lots of heads of state and government around the world. 69 Noble Prize winners,6 turning award winners, and three Fields medallists have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford. 160 Olympic medals have won by the alumni of Oxford University. it’s one among the simplest university of the earth. this is often truly a story of its own once you see great people that became world leaders and inspirational to possess attended this university.
England now has one among the simplest education system within the world. Oxford is that the home of various scholarships like Rhodes scholarship, it’s one of the oldest international graduate scholarships. It helps many students to finish their graduation and provides them with the assistance they require to fund their education. If we had to list every superstar from Oxford, it’d be an inventory as long as an entire 10 volume dictionary we will imagine what that might appear as if. many of us dream to travel to Oxford University and each year thousands of applications are rejected as many students don’t meet the wants to urge enrolled. There are scientists, politicians, authors, actors, comedians, and more. As a member of the university, all students, and most academic staff, even be a member of a university or hall. There are 38 colleges of the University of Oxford and 6 Permanent Private Halls, every controlling its membership and with its own interior form and deeds. All colleges don’t offer all courses, but they typically cover a broad range of subjects, 1000 courses are runs over per annum in several Department of Oxford University, it’s also offered on a part-time source which is actually remarkable.
There are many programs in Oxford including awards and degrees at undergraduate and postgraduate level, they’re designed to perfectly match what students are trying to find also as online short courses, day and weekend events, weekly classes, continuing professional development, and summer schools. quite 50 students of Oxford diplomas: records, diplomas, progressive diplomas, offered part-time, within the arts, social sciences, diplomatic studies, human rights law, Master’s and Doctoral degrees, health care, and biomedical sciences. Most of them recruit internationally. The duration in fact has its own structure and ranges from one year to many years part-time. The Department also runs a grad school to supply the support and guidance needed by those following part-time graduate programmers. per annum over 20,000 registrations on courses open by the Department for Ongoing Education, creating Oxford University one among the most important providers of ongoing education within the UK. Oxford’s Department for Current Education is additionally one among the traditional providers of part-time grownup education, having been originated in 1878 at the front of the extension movement. So people should study at Oxford University for building a bright future.
The university also gives facilities for postgraduate students. they need access to the library, living room, bar, dining-room, computer resource room, and therefore the Graduate Schoolroom with study space, printing facilities, lockers, and refreshments. Within the broader University, students are ready to use Facilities at the Bodleian Libraries University Club Middle living room in individual colleges further information is often found on the Oxford University. Every student must have the will to read at Oxford which is not any .1 University because during this university the teaching, research, and learning resources are exceptional.
Facts and figures About Oxford University
• Oxford was ranked first within the world within the Times education (THE) World University Rankings for 2017, 2018, and 2019.
• There are over 24,000 students at Oxford, including 11,930 undergraduates and 11,813 postgraduates.
• Oxford is extremely competitive: quite 21,500 people applied for around 3,300 undergraduate places for entry in 2018. meaning that Oxford receives, on the average, quite 6 applications for every available place.
• The dominance of Oxford’s UK undergraduates come from state schools. the newest figures show that, of places offered to UK applicants, over 60.5% of undergraduate places visited students from the state sector.
• Oxford offers quite 350 different graduate degree programs.
• International students structure almost 43% of our total student body – over 10,000 students. Students come to Oxford from quite 150 countries and territories.
• According to the 2014 Research nobility Framework, the official UK-wide assessment of all university research, Oxford has the most valuable volume of world-leading research within the country.
• Oxford University, along with the universities and Oxford University Press, is that the largest employer in Oxfordshire, supporting around quit 30,000 jobs in the county and injecting quite £2.3bn annually into the regional economy.
Cambridge University is one among the foremost popular and famous universities within the ancient world. The university is that the second oldest university among the western countries and therefore the 4th oldest university round the world. it’s a public university and most referred to as a search university. per annum variety of things are researched here. The university is founded in 1209 and King Henry III granted it as a charter in 1231. there have been many scholars who came from Oxford University because they disliked the lifetime of townspeople and therefore the scholars organized an association. the 2 oldest universities have many common characteristics and that they are often called jointly as” Oxbridge”.
Cambridge University is one among the foremost prestigious universities over the world which features a glorious history. The university deals with an outsized number of institutions which include 100 academic departments systematized into six schools and 31 component colleges. The department of the press of the University is that the oldest publisher and therefore the second-largest press within the world. There are many museums within the university, these are divided into cultural and scientific like Fitzwilliam Museum or Botanic garden. the amount of museums is eight. There are about 15 million books held at This University.
Every year Cambridge University earns an enormous amount of cash from the section of research grants and contracts. Cambridge is that the top-ranked within the UK in 2018. it’s also ranked because the world’s second-best university in 2017. the tutorial ranking of the university is progressing day by day. The university has many enormous alumni; they need a big contribution to the history of the university. Many politicians, scientists, lawyers, writers, philosophers, actors, and Heads of various foreign states are study, research, and add Cambridge University. After March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 7 Turing Award winners, 11 Fields Medalists, and 15 British Prime Minister have related to This University.
Cambridge University is one among the foremost illustrious universities within the world. Overall 11% undergraduates are from Cambridge and that they represent quite 65 countries. On the campus of Cambridge, it’s regardless of where are you from, every student seems to him as your friend. due to the standard of teaching and research Cambridge is rated at the highest consistent with the international league tables. There are courses of an undergraduate degree within the field of sciences, social sciences, arts, medical sciences, and engineering.
Cambridge University arranges different seminars, lectures, and practical courses for the needs of developed the outlook of the scholars. The University of Cambridge may be a collegiate university. within the collegiate university, there must have several faculties and departments in various academic subjects and lots of colleges. all types of scholars aren’t getting chance at This University only the motivated and highly qualified students are ready to get admitted. In Cambridge, the tactic of teaching is respected all over the world.
Cambridge University libraries
There are 100 libraries with an enormous collection of valuable books which may be a great source of being learned. the scholars of Cambridge are ready to earn knowledge with the assistance of up-to-date facilities of the university. This university is one among the foremost remarkable university within the world for employer reputation. the scholar who graduates from Cambridge has more capable within the fields of occupation due to their manageable skills.
The University of Cambridge features a sizable amount of myths and legends. the University is situated within the central location of Cambridge and most of the scholars are the town population. The environment of reading is easier than the other university. the standard of teaching is exclusive and teachers are tried to satisfy the scholars and more professional and friendly. due to its glorious history, every student features a latent desire to read their dream university of Cambridge!!!
Great Wall of China, Chinese (Pinyin) Wanli Changcheng or (Wade-Giles romanization) Wan-li Ch’ang-Ch’ing (“10,000-Li Long Wall”), extensive bulwark erected in ancient China, one among the most important building-construction projects ever undertaken. the great Wall actually consists of various walls—many of them parallel to every other—built over some two millennia across northern China and southern Mongolia.
Nearly all of the remainder (about 70 percent of the entire length) is an actually constructed wall, with the tiny remaining stretches constituting ditches or moats. Although lengthy sections of the wall are now in ruins or have disappeared completely, it’s still one of the more remarkable structures on Earth. In 1987, the great wall was denominated as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Large parts of the fortification system go back the 7th through the 4th century BCE. The greater total length of the Ming wall was announced in 2009.
The Construction History of Great wall
The Great Wall developed from the disparate border fortifications and castles of individual Chinese kingdoms. For several centuries these kingdoms probably were as concerned with protection from their near neighbors as they were with the threat of barbarian invasions or raids.
About the 7th century BCE, the state of Chu began to construct a permanent defensive system. referred to as the “Square Wall,” this fortification was situated within the northern a part of the kingdom’s capital province. . within the southern part of the Qi state, an in-depth perimeter wall was gradually created using existing river dikes, newly constructed bulwarks, and areas of impassable mountain terrain. within the Zhongshan state, a wall system was built to thwart invasion from the states of Zhao and Qin within the southwest. there have been two defensive lines within the Wei state: the Hexi (“West of the [Yellow] River”) and Henan (“South of the River”) walls built
During the reign of King Hui (370–335 BCE), it had been expanded from the dikes on the Luo River on the western border. It started within the south near Xiangyuan Cave, east of Mount Hua, and ended at Guyang in what’s now the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.After administrative reorganization was administered by Shang Yang (died 338 BCE), the Qin state grew politically and militarily to become the strongest among the seven states, but it had been frequently raided by the Donghu and Loufan, two nomadic peoples fromT the north.
In the Yan state two separate defensive lines were prepared—the Northern Wall and therefore the Yishui Wall—in an attempt to defend the dominion from attacks by northern groups like the Donghu, Linhu, and Soufan, also as by the Qi state within the south. It began southwest of Yi City, the capital, and ended south of Tenjin. In 290 BCE the Yan state built the Northern Wall along the Yan Mountains, ranging from the northeast within the area of Zhangjiakou in Hebei, passing over the Liao River, and increasing to the traditional city of Xiangping (modern Liaoyang). This was the last segment of the great wall to be erected during the Zhanguo (Warring States) period.
In 221 BCE Shihuangdi, the primary Qin emperor, completed his annexation of Qi and thus unified China. He ordered the removal of the fortifications found out between the previous states because they served only as obstacles to internal movements and administration. additionally, he sent Gen. this era of construction began about 214 BCE and lasted a decade. many thousands of soldiers and conscripted workers labored on the project. With the autumn of the Qin dynasty after Shihuangdi’s death, however, the wall was left largely ungarrisoned and fell into disrepair.
During the reign of the Han emperor Wudi (141–87 BCE), the wall was strengthened as a part of an overall campaign against the Xiongnu. From that period the great wall also contributed to the exploitation of farmland in northern and western China and to the expansion of the trade route that came to be referred to as the Silk Road. In 121 BCE a 20-year project of construction was started on the Hexi Wall (generally referred to as the Side Wall) between Yongdeng (now in Gansu) within the east and Lake Lop Nur (now in Xinjiang) within the west. consistent with Juyan Hanjian (“Juyan Correspondence of the Han”), the strongpoints found out along the wall included “a beacon every 5 li, a tower every 10 li,The main work on the wall during the Dong (Eastern) Han period (25–220 CE) happened during the reign of Liu Xiu (Guangwudi), who in 38 ordered the repair of 4 parallel lines of the great wall up the world south of the Hexi Wall. the great wall served not just for defense but also to centralize control of trade and travel.
During the Bei (Northern) Wei (386–534/535 CE), the great wall was repaired and extended as a defense against attacks from the Juan-Juan and Khitan tribes within the north. consistent with Wei Shu: Mingyuandi Ji (“History of Wei: Chronicle of Emperor Mingyuan”), in 417, the eighth year of the reign of Mingyuandi (409–423), a neighborhood of the Great Wall was built south of Changchun, from Chicheng (now in Hebei) to Wuyuan (now in Inner Mongolia) within the west, extending quite 620 miles (1,000 km). It extended to the eastern side of the Huang He, forming a revolve around Datong. In 549, after the Dong Wei kingdom moved its capital east to Ye, it also built a segment of the great wall up the world of up to date Shanxi province. In order to strengthen its northern frontier and stop the invasion from the west by the Bei Zhou, the Bei Qi kingdom (550–577) launched several big construction projects that were nearly as extensive in scope because of the building projects of the Qin dynasty.
In 556 a replacement fortification was found out within the east and extended to the Yellow Sea. the subsequent year a second wall was built inside the great wall within modern Shanxi, beginning within the vicinity of Laying east of Pianguan, extending to the east beyond Yanmen Pass and Pingxing Pass, and ending within the area around Xiaguan in Shanxi. That’s the part of the great wall found today within the area around Longguan, Guangchang, and Fuping (in Shanxi and Hebei). In 565 the inner wall inbuilt 557 was repaired, and a replacement wall was added that started within the vicinity of Xiaguan, extended to the Juyong Pass within the east, then joined to the outer wall.and therefore the Khitan, the emperor Jing started a huge rebuilding program on areas of the wall located within the former Bei Qi kingdom, starting at Yanmen within the west and ending at Jieshi within the east.
During the Sui dynasty (581–618) the great wall was repaired and improved seven times in an attempt to defend the country against attacks from the Tujue. After the Tang (618–907) replaced the Sui, the country grew much stronger militarily, defeating the Tujue within the north and expanding beyond the first frontier. During the Sung (960–1279), however, the Liao and Jin peoples within the north were a continuing threat. Many areas on each side of the wall were subsequently appropriated by the Liao (907–1125) and Jin dynasties (1115–1234).
When the Song rulers had to retreat even farther—to the south of the Chang Jiang (Chang Jiang)—repairs to the wall or extensions of it were not feasible. Limited repairs were administered once (1056) during Liao times but only within the area between the Yazi and Hunting rivers. In 1115, after the Jin dynasty was founded, the action was completed on two protective lines at Mingchang.
The old wall previously told the Wushu Wall, or Jinyuan Fort—ran westward to some range north of Wulanhada, then wound through the Hailatu Mountains, turn to the north then to the west again, finally ending at the Nuanshui River. The second lines were the new Mingchang Wall, also called the Inner Jin Wall or the Jin Trench, which was constructed south of the old wall. It started within the west from a bend within the Huang He and ended at the Sungari (Songhua) River.
During the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty (1206–1368), the Mongols controlled all of China, also as other parts of Asia and sections of Europe. As a defense the great Wall was of little significance to them; however, some forts and key areas were repaired and garrisoned so as to regulate commerce .
Rulers during the Ming (1368–1644) ceaselessly maintained and strengthened the great Wall to stop another Mongolian invasion. the bulk of the work happened along the old walls built by the Bei Qi and Bei Wei.
Most of the great Wall that stand today is that the results of work done during the reign of the Hongzhi Emperor (1487–1505). Starting west of Juyong Pass, this a part of the wall was split into south and north lines, respectively named the Inner and Outer walls. Along the wall were many strategic “passes” (i.e., fortresses) and gates. Together they were mentioned because the Three Inner Passes. Farther west was Yanmen, Ningwu, and Piantou passes, referred to as the Three Outer Passes. Both the Inner and Outer passes were of key importance in saving the capital and were generally heavily garrisoned.
After the Qing (Manchu) dynasty (1644–1911/12) replaced the Ming, there was a change in a ruling strategy called huairou (“mollification”), wherein the Qing tried to pacify the leaders and peoples of Mongolia, Tibet, and other nationalities by not interfering with local social, cultural, or religious life. due to the success of that strategy, the great Wall was repaired less frequently, and it gradually fell into ruin.
Design Of The Fortifications
The Great Wall had three major components: passes, signal towers (beacons), and walls.
Passes were major strongholds along the wall, usually located at such key positions as intersections with trade routes. The ramparts of the many passes were faced with huge bricks and stones, with dirt and crushed stones as filler. The bastions measured some 30 feet (10 metres) high and 13 to 16 feet (4 to five metres) wide at the highest. Within each pass were accessed ramps for horses and ladders for soldiers. the surface parapet was crenellated, and therefore the inside parapet, or yuqiang (nüqiang), was a coffee wall about 3 feet (1 metre) high that prevented people and horses from a slump the highest. additionally, to serving as an access point for merchants and other civilians, the gate within the pass was used as an exit for the garrison to counterattack raiders or to send patrols.
Under the gate arch, there was typically an enormous door of wood. Bolts and locker rings were set within the inner panel of every door. On top of every gate was a gate tower that served as a watchtower and general headquarters. Usually, it stood one to 3 stories (levels) high and was constructed either of wood or of bricks and wood. Built outside the gate, where an enemy was presumably to attack, was a weighing, a semicircular or polygonal parapet that shielded the gate from direct assault. Extending beyond the foremost strategic wengchengs was a further line of protection, the lurching, which was often topped by a tower wont to watch those beyond the wall and to direct troop movements in battles waged there. round the gate entrance, there was often a moat that was formed within the process of digging earth to create the fortifications.
Signal towers were also called beacons, beacon terraces, smoke mounds, mounds, or kiosks. They were used to send military contacts: beacon (fires or lanterns) during the night or smoke signals within the daytime; other methods like raising banners, beating clappers, or firing guns were also used. Signal towers, often built on hilltops for max visibility, were self-contained high platforms or towers. The lower levels contained rooms for soldiers, also as stables, sheepfolds, and storage areas.
The wall itself was the key a part of the defensive system. it always stood 21.3 feet (6.5 meters) wide at the bottom and 19 feet (5.8 meters) at the highest, with a mean height of 23 to 26 feet (7 to eight meters), or a touch lower on steep hills. The structure of the wall varied from place to put, counting on the supply of building materials. Walls were made from tamped earth sandwiched between wooden boards, adobe bricks, a brick and stone mixture, rocks, or pilings and planks. Some sections made use of existing river dikes; others used rugged mountain terrain like cliffs and gorges to require the place of artificial structures.
In the western deserts the walls were often simple structures of rammed earth and adobe; many eastern ramparts, like those near Badaling, were faced with stone and included a variety of secondary structures and devices. On the inner side of such walls, placed at small intervals, were arched doors called Juan, which were made from bricks or stones. Inside each Juan were stone or brick steps resulting in the highest of the battlement. On the highest, on the side facing outward, stood 7-foot- (2-metre-) high crenels called duokou. On the upper, a part of the duokou were large openings wont to watch and shoot at attackers, and on the lower part were small openings, or loopholes, through which defenders could also shoot. At intervals of about 650 to 1,000 feet (200 to 300 meters) there was a crenelated platform rising slightly above the highest of the wall and protruding from the side that faced attackers.
During the battle, the platform provided a commanding view and made it possible to shoot attackers from the side as they attempted to scale the wall with ladders. On several platforms were simply structured huts called puffing, which provided shelter for the guards during storms. Some platforms, like signal towers, had two or three stories and will be wont to store weapons and ammunition. Those at Badaling commonly had two stories, with accommodations for quite 10 soldiers on the lower level. there have been also drainage ditches on the walls to shield them from damage by excessive rainwater.
Each major stronghold along the wall was hierarchically linked to a network of military and administrative commands. During the rule of Shihuangdi, 12 prefectures were established along the wall, and within the Ming period, the entire fortification was divided into 9 defense areas, or zones. A post chief (zongbingguan) was assigned to every zone. Together they were referred to as the Nine Border Garrisons.
Tradition And Conservation
The Great Wall has long been incorporated into Chinese mythology and popular symbolism, and within the 20th century, it came to be considered a national symbol. Above the East Gate (Dongmen) at Shanhai Pass is an inscription attributed to the medieval historian Xiao Xian, which is translated as “First Pass Under Heaven,” pertaining to the normal division between Chinese civilization and therefore the barbarian lands to the north.
Despite the wall’s cultural significance, roadways are traversed it at several points, and vast sections have suffered centuries of neglect. within the 1970s a segment near Simatai (68 miles [110 km] northeast of Beijing) was dismantled for building materials, but it had been subsequently rebuilt. The best-known section, at Badaling (43 miles [70 km] northwest of Beijing), was rebuilt within the late 1950s; it now attracts thousands of national and foreign tourists a day . Part of the wall round Shanhai Pass and at Mount Hu, the eastern terminus, also had been reconstructed by 2000.
Stanford University was founded in 1885 that may be a private institution. it’s a complete undergraduate enrollment of seven,087, its setting is suburban, and therefore the campus size is 8,180 acres. It utilizes a quarter-based academic calendar. Stanford University’s ranking within the 2020 edition of Best Colleges is National Universities, #6. Its tuition and costs are $53,529.
Stanford University’s pristine campus is found in California’s Bay Area, about 30 miles from San Francisco. Stanford grants a good extent of student organizations, including the Stanford Pre-Business Association and Stanford Solar Car Project, which designs, builds and races a solar car every two years. The Stanford Cardinal are recorded for the normal “Big Game” against Cal, Which is an annual football competition that awards the Stanford Axe — a sought-after trophy — to the winner. Stanford also has Fruitful programs in golf and tennis. Only freshmen are required to measure on campus, but students are guaranteed housing for all four years, and most prefer to remain on campus. Greek life at Stanford represents approximately 25 percent of the scholar body.
Four of Stanford University’s seven schools offer undergraduate and graduate coursework, and therefore the remaining three functions purely graduate schools. Graduate programs include the highly ranked School of Education, School of Engineering, School of Law, School of drugs and grad school of Business. The Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment takes care of collaboration between environmental research, outreach, and teaching. Stanford characteristics a number of famous theatrical and musical groups, including the Ram’s Head Theatrical Society and therefore the Mendicants, an all-male a cappella group. Notable Stanford alumni include former U.S. President Hoover, Hall of Fame NFL quarterback John Elway, actress Sigourney Weaver and golfer Tiger Woods, who played collegiately at Stanford.
Stanford University Admissions
Stanford University admissions are best qualified with an acceptance rate of 4%. Most of the applicants admitted to this University have an SAT score between 1420 and 1570 or an ACT score of 32 and 35. As one-quarter of admitted candidates achieved scores above these ranges and one quarter scored below these ranges. the appliance deadline is Jan. 2 and therefore the application fee at this University is $90.
Academic Life at Stanford University
The student-faculty ratio at Stanford University is 5:1, and therefore the school has 68.8 percent of its classes with fewer than 20 students. the foremost popular majors at this University include knowledge Sciences, Computer and Support Services; Engineering; Multi/Interdisciplinary Studies; Social Sciences; and Physical Sciences. the typical freshman retention rate, an indicator of student satisfaction, is 98 percent.
Stanford University features a total undergraduate enrollment of seven,087, with a gender distribution of fifty percent male students and 50 percent female students. At this school, 93 percent of the scholars sleep in college-owned, -operated or -affiliated housing and seven percent of scholars live off-campus. In sports, Stanford University is a component of the NCAA I.
Stanford University‘sTuition & aid
49 percent of full-time undergraduates at Stanford University, takes some quite need-based aid, and therefore the average need-based scholarship or grant award is $52,500.
Paying for school doesn’t need to be difficult or devastating. attend the Paying for school knowledge center to urge advice on raising cash and reducing costs, or use the U.S. News 529 Finder to settle on the simplest tax-advantaged college investment account for you.
The institution reported Campus safety data to the U.S. Department of Education and haven’t been independently verified. The numbers reflect reports of alleged offenses to campus security and/or enforcement authorities, not necessarily prosecutions or convictions for criminal offenses. Experts advise prospective students and their families to try to their own research to gauge the security of campus also because of the surrounding area.
Stanford University offers a variety of student services, including nonremedial tutoring, women’s center, placement service, daycare, health service, insurance. Stanford University also offers security services and campus safety like 24-hour foot and vehicle patrols, late night transport/escort service, 24-hour emergency telephones, lighted road/sidewalks, controlled dormitory access (key, security card, etc.). Alcohol is permitted for college kids of majority at Stanford University.